Referencing is a consistent method of acknowledging another person's ideas, which you have used, in your own essay or assignment.

Why should I cite references?

  • To abide by the University’s policy on How to Avoid Plagiarism.
  • To acknowledge the work of other writers.
  • To enable other researchers to trace your sources.
  • To demonstrate the depth of your research.

Which style should I use?

  • There are many acceptable forms of referencing. Check your unit’s study guide for information on which style you must use.
  • Specific referencing styles may be used in some subject areas, units and publications.
  • All referencing styles change as new editions of the manuals are published and new methods of publishing are established.

Styles used at Murdoch

These styles are international standards and have style manuals to refer to for further examples.

Author-date referencing styles

Style Subject
APA Psychology, Nursing, Education, Tourism, Criminology
Chicago Transition Units, Multidisciplinary
MLA English

Harvard no longer produces a guide to referencing, please use Chicago style.

Notational referencing styles

Style Subject
ACS Chemistry
Footnote Social Sciences, Humanities
IEEE Engineering, Electronics, IT, Computer Science
Legal Law
Vancouver Biomedicine, Health Sciences